Capitalism considered

In 1919,  it was stated in Michigan Supreme court that “a business corporation is organized and carried on primarily for the profit of the stockholders. The powers of the directors are to be employed for that end.” [1] and in 1986, Delaware chancery court similarly opined: “It is the obligation of directors to attempt, within the law, to maximize the long-run interests of the corporation’s stockholders.” Continue reading

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Earth system

earth system

Have you heard this term?

The Earth we live on is a complex system of interacting physical, chemical and biological processes. The Earth system can be understood as a set of interlinking and interacting “spheres”. The atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and geosphere (or lithosphere) form the simplest collection, though some would add the cryosphere as a special element dealing with polar regions and processes, and others would add the anthroposphere emphasizing human dimensions and impact on the planet. [1] This system includes the planet’s many natural cycles (e.g. carbon, water, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulphur etc.) that support life. [2] Continue reading